2019-09-17 10:10:29 来源：宿迁商报
汉代是中国陶瓷历史上的一个重要转折点。所制器物的表面被广泛施釉，有学者认为是受罗马及欧洲人制造琉璃技术的影响，国为当时的人们与上述地区有着密切的贸易往来。汉代人重视墓葬，成为习俗，殉葬品力求丰富而精细，被称为"明器"，它与祭器之别在于它是专门供死者在阴间所用而非为生者用具。 陪葬品中除少量石质品、金属制品、木质漆器以外，被大量使用的为陶制品，因为这种材质可历千年而不腐败。除饮食所用的器皿外，大量摹拟生活场景，加以缩微，如陶制的楼阁、仓房、灶台、兽圈、车马、井台、奴仆等等，营造虚幻环境供死者享用。 明器当中的壶、尊、盆、罐之类器皿，一般都在素坯之外敷设一层粉彩，并不与胎体相融，稍摩擦便脱落;小型生活场景模型，外表都施加绿色低温铅釉，这种铅釉有毒性已被当时人们所知晓，所以在日常生活用品中并不使用。对陵墓的重视，使这一时期出现了一种特殊建材 "圹砖"。"圹"就是指墓穴，圹砖体积较大，内部为空心，外表饰有图案，可连续排列，也可独立成为画面。砖面图案是模具拓印而成的，这是后世陶瓷器表面印花工艺的雏形。
The collection is a gray pottery stove, and the Han Dynasty used mud as a blank tire and fired into a kiln. It is mainly a variety of food containers, storage devices and other containers, as well as other living utensils, as well as devices specially made for burial. Due to differences in age and region, the types of artifacts, patterns, patterns, and firing temperatures are all different. In general, it can be divided into four categories: gray pottery, hard pottery, glazed pottery and celadon.
The pottery sculpture of the Han Dynasty is not only the crystallization of the development of ancient Chinese pottery, but also the product of the magnificent Han culture during the rise of Chinese feudal society. Due to its roots in the realistic soil, the Han Dynasty pottery sculpture pays attention to reflecting social life, and at the same time pursues a simple, ancient, bold and energetic artistic style in the artistic style, making it not only in the long river of pottery technology development. And in the flood of Chinese art development, there is an immortal glow. It not only provides rich and true image materials for future generations to study the social life of the Han Dynasty, but also opens up an infinite road for the development of traditional Chinese sculpture, painting and other techniques. In this sense, the pottery sculpture of the Han Dynasty is worthy of the treasures of ancient Chinese art.
TThe Han Dynasty was an important turning point in the history of Chinese ceramics. The surface of the artifacts was widely glazed. Some scholars believe that it was influenced by Roman and European glass manufacturing technologies. At that time, people in the country had close trade relations with the above regions. The Han Dynasty attached importance to tombs and became a custom. The burial objects sought to be rich and refined. They were called "bright objects." The difference between it and the rituals was that it was dedicated to the dead for use in the underworld rather than for the living. In addition to a small amount of stone products, metal products, and wooden lacquer Ware, pottery products are used in large quantities because this material can be used for thousands of years without corruption. In addition to the utensils used in the diet, a large number of life scenes are copied and miniaturized, such as pottery pavilions, warehouses, stoves, beasts, horses, Wells, servants, etc., to create an illusory environment for the deceased to enjoy. The pots, statues, pots, pots, and other utensils in the brightener are generally laid with a layer of pastel outside the blank, and they do not melt with the fetal body, and they fall off with slight friction; The small life scene model, the appearance of green low-temperature lead glaze, this lead glaze has been known at the time, so it is not used in daily necessities. The attention to the mausoleum has led to the emergence of a special building material "brick" during this period. "<UNK>" refers to the tomb, which has a large volume, a hollow interior, and a pattern on the outside. It can be arranged continuously or it can become an independent picture. The pattern of brick surface is made of mold, which is the prototype of the surface printing process of later pottery.